Jews are the Children of Israel, i.e. Prophet Jacob, who primarily belonged to the area known as Juda. Israelites believe in all the prophets before Prophet Abraham, however the case becomes different when it comes till him. They believe that Prophet Abraham had one wife Sarah who gave birth to Isaac and one Egyptian handmaiden Hagar who gave birth to Ishmael. Hence from Prophet Abraham onwards their lineage became holy and chosen one for them as the prophets were coming from Prophet Isaac’s lineage down till them.
Jesus was sent upon the same people with the continuation of Mosas’ message.
By 1st CE, there were five primary sects among Jews: Sadducees (meaning “The righteous ones of Tzadok”) were the high priests form inside temple [i]; Pharisees (meaning “set apart”); Zealots (meaning “one who is zealous on behalf of God”) with violent tendencies were with the political interests, traces their roots back to the Maccabean revolt about 150 BC, about the same time the Pharisees began [ii]; Essenes (200 BC – 100 CE) [iii], and Christians.
Besides Christianity and Pharisees, all other sects vanished after the destruction of 2nd temple in 70 CE. Christians survived as followers of Jesus and later separated into a religion, while Pharsees survived as Rabbanic Judaism.
Sadducees schools, which rely on the Torah alone, did not die completely. Some Jews in the 8th and 9th centuries rejected the authority and divine inspiration of the Oral law as recorded in the Mishnakh (and developed by later rabbis in the two Talmuds), relying instead only upon the Tanakh.[iv] These included the Isunians, the Yudaanites, the Malikites and others. They soon developed oral traditions of their own, which differed from the rabbinic traditions, and eventually formed the Qaraite sect. Rabbanical and Qaraite Jews each hold that the others are Jews, but that the other faith is erroneous.
Qaraite s are similar to Samaritans that they both focus on Torah. They speak hebrew but theres a small group nebulous i.e. Palestinian arabic. The still live in Palestine.
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[i] Their founder was Zadok, in Hebrew meaning “Righteous”, the first High Priest to serve the Solomon’s building of The First Temple in Jerusalem.
[ii] More like revolutionists, many members of this party bore also the name Sicarii, from their custom of going about with daggers (“sicæ”) hidden beneath their cloaks, with which they would stab any one found committing a sacrilegious act or anything provoking anti-Jewish feeling.
[iii] Strugnell, John. “Flavius Josephus and the Essenes: Antiquities XVIII.18-22.” Journal of Biblical Literature 77, no. 2 (1958): 106-15. doi:10.2307/3264591.
The Essenes gained fame with the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, which are commonly believed to be the Essenes’ library. These documents include preserved multiple copies of the Hebrew Bible (the Torah and Tanakh) along with other literary works of the time untouched from as early as 300 BC until their discovery over 2,000 years later in 1946 CE.
[iv] Sadducees, rejected the divine inspiration of the Prophet and writing. They only look at the Torah and call themselves as the real Jews.